All lazy initialization in ICU should use umtx_initOnce(). See one-time-initialization
The implementation does double-checked locking where possible, including the appropriate platform/compiler annotations needed for memory barriers and to prevent compiler reordering of operations.
ICU uses double-checked locking for access to immutable, not statically initializable objects in performance-sensitive code. For example, we have static API functions (without a service object) for access to Unicode properties, and use double-checked locking for the lazy loading and initialization of the property names data (pnames.icu).
TBD: Point to code, especially the UMTX_CHECK() macro.
Double-checked locking is generally thread-unsafe, so we have to use a mutex to read the variable (pointer to the object, or boolean flag for whether it has been initialized). This is expensive, so we turn it off in a single-threaded build, and we try to turn it off for platforms with a sufficiently strong memory model.
TBD: List platforms where we don't mutex. Just Windows?
We should expand the set of platforms for which we provide more efficient double-checked locking. We should consider using intermediate, as cheap as possible (cheaper than mutex), mechanisms on platforms that do not require a mutex but don't have a memory model strong enough to not do anything. For example, we should try to use volatile if that is sufficient, or consider using memory barriers.
TBD: The following is just a collection of material for now.
Double-checked locking (Wikipedia): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double_checked_locking_pattern
The "Double-Checked Locking is Broken" Declaration: http://www.cs.umd.edu/~pugh/java/memoryModel/DoubleCheckedLocking.html
Double-checked locking and the Singleton pattern: http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/j-dcl.html
Understand the Impact of Low-Lock Techniques in Multithreaded Apps: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc163715.aspx
Who ordered memory fences on an x86? http://bartoszmilewski.wordpress.com/2008/11/05/who-ordered-memory-fences-on-an-x86/
Multicores and Publication Safety: http://bartoszmilewski.wordpress.com/2008/08/04/multicores-and-publication-safety/
IA Memory Ordering (Google Tech Talk): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUfvvFD5tAA
Intel 64 Architecture Memory Ordering White Paper: This document has been merged into Volume 3A of Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual (System Programming Guide): http://www.intel.com/Assets/PDF/manual/253668.pdf (See chapter 7.2 Memory Ordering).
AMD64 Architecture Programmer’s Manual: http://www.amd.com/us-en/assets/content_type/white_papers_and_tech_docs/24593.pdf
Parallelism and the ARM Instruction Set Architecture: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=01463106 (see "Weakly ordered memory consistency")
Don't rely on memory barriers for synchronization... Only if you don't aware of Relacy Race Detector! http://software.intel.com/en-us/blogs/2009/03/03/dont-rely-on-memory-barriers-for-synchronization-only-if-you-dont-aware-of-relacy-race-detector/ (good-sounding links in reader posts)
Memory Barrier for reader (user question, Intel answer): http://software.intel.com/en-us/forums/threading-on-intel-parallel-architectures/topic/65071/
Single-Producer/Single-Consumer Queue: http://software.intel.com/en-us/articles/single-producer-single-consumer-queue/
gcc atomic operation built-ins. http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-4.1.0/gcc/Atomic-Builtins.html (do not seem to include a simple "fetch", only "fetch-and-do-something")
Original? paper on Double-Checked Locking, An Optimization Pattern for EfficientlyInitializing and Accessing Thread-safe Objects (does not address weak memory models): http://www.cs.wustl.edu/~schmidt/PDF/DC-Locking.pdf